The U.S. Empire’s Shameful Multiplier Effect

Let X = number of persons who died in the USA as a result of the 9/11 attacks.

X ≈ 3,000.

Let Y = number of persons who have died in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan as a result of direct war violence associated with the U.S. attacks and occupations since 9/11.

Y ≈ between 158,000 and 202,000.

To avoid the extremes, let us split the difference and say Y = 180,000.

Therefore, Y ≈ 60 X.

Let Z = number of persons who have died of causes indirectly related to the wars and occupations, such as diseases caused by the war’s destruction of infrastructure and housing and its dislocation of populations.

Z ≈ between 2Y and 6Y.

Therefore, Z ≈ between 120 X and 360 X.

This situation is not exactly a case of an eye for an eye, even if the people of Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan had been responsible for the 9/11 attacks, which they were not. And the toll continues to mount with no end in sight. In this case, sad to say, the multiplier effect has been all too real.

Robert Higgs is Retired Senior Fellow in Political Economy at the Independent Institute, author or editor of over fourteen Independent books, and Founding Editor of Independent’s quarterly journal The Independent Review.
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